BOLAND CELL : emphasizes the importance and relevance of structured light-therapy in biotechnology and the clinic. Light, has unique and profound effects on cells in tissue culture. Monochromatic and polychromatic light affect tissue culture differently. Some examples include, the application of light to treat jaundice in babies, depression and psoriasis. UVA and UVC light have been applied to treat persons with AIDS. Narrow band blue light (420 nm) has been directed at the treatment of acne vulgaris (J Drugs Dermatol 2006, 5:605-10). In these people, the inflammatory lesions in comedones are improved. UVB radiation serves as a potent modulation of cell-mediated immune responses (see above reference). UV radiation is known to suppress some cell-mediated immune responses to antigens soon after exposure (Br J Dermatol 1993, 129:28-38). Some patients with psoriasis have benefited from phototherapy but the exact mechanism of action, remains unknown.
HIV-infected persons with skin diseases have been treated with UV, UVB and UVA (PUVA). Details are provided in J Am Acad Dermatol 1998, 39:48-55. However the overall affects of UV radiation exposure on HIV-1 infection in human beings are unknown (J Am Acad Dermatol 1994, 31:735-40). Early studies in this type of patient cohort do not show large changes in the CD 4 cell count or HIV-load. Results remain controversial, but nonetheless interesting from a biotechnological and research perspective (Dermatology 1997, 195:84-5). If viremia will be changed remains to be seen. Interesting studies have reported the use of photodynamic therapy in AIDS patients with Kaposi's sarcoma and debilitating oral mucositis (OTL head, Neck Surgery:1990, 102:639-49). Dramatic partial and complete responses have been reported in these people after photolight therapy.
Patients with AIDS- related complex merit further investigation with photopheresis, the process by which peripheral blood is exposed in an extracorporeal flow system photo-activated with (8-MOP) (See Ann N Y Acad Sci 1991, 30, 636:154-64). Studies have been done in man in small trials in HIV disease and extracorporeal photopheresis appears to be safe. Subjective improvement is reported. There was no detrimental effect on CD3 and CD8 cells after treatment (J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 1993, 6:686-92). Other important work has been reported from the New York University School of Medicine. These researchers have shown that UVB phototherapy is efficacious in HIV-1 infected patients with UVB-responsive dermatosis and is not associated with short-term changes in immune function.
OTHER INTERESTING DATA FROM THE LITERATURE INCLUDE:
- Photo modulation and minimally invasive non-ablative laser therapies can positively affect wound healing (Dermatol Surg 2005, 31:334-40).
- Monochromatic light treatment can affect muscle growth and satellite cell proliferation in animals (Comp Biochem and Physiol 1998, 317-323).
- Low energy laser irradiation can activate quiescent skeletal muscle satellite cells into the cell cycle and enhance proliferation. This action may be through the P13K/Akt and RAS/RAF/ERK pathways.
- Low level laser therapy (LLLT) can effect the proliferation of keratinocytes and benefit wound healing (Laser Therap 1993, 5:65-73).
- LLLT can improve in-vitro human gingival fibroblast proliferation (lasers in Surg and Med 2001, 29:179-184). In one study a fluence of 2 J/cm 3 was used.
- Biomodulatory effects of low level laser on fibroblast cell cultures have been documented (Lasers in Surgery and Medicine 1998, 22:294-301). Other workers using Helium-Neon optical radiation also show potential for the stimulation of human fibroblast proliferation and cell attachment in-vitro (Lasers in Life sciences 1986, 125-134).
- Lasers, including infrared light (together with radiofrequency) can be used to rejuvenate the face and improve wrinkling and solar damage. Presumably this is by fibroblast stimulation. Other uses of lasers are for hair removal, treatment of facial and leg telangiectasis, management of acne and rejuvenation.
BIOTECHNOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF LIGHT AND PHOTOTHERAPY
- Light is a transverse, electromagnetic wave that can be seen by humans (Physics Hypertexbook: 1998-2005).
- Monochromatic light is described by only one frequency. Laser light is effectively monochromatic.
- White light is polychromatic.
- The visible part of the spectrum falls between the wavelengths of 430 nm- 690 nm.
- Bands of light include red, orange, yellow, green, blue and violet.
- Cell expansion in dicotyledonous leaves is strongly stimulated by bright white light ( Planta 1990, 182:72-6). This is important for photosynthesis.
- Laser irradiation has been assumed to enhance, trans-membrane electrochemical proton gradient in mitochondria and to increase calcium release into the cytoplasm from the mitochondria (Lasers in Surg and Med 2005, 36:225-233). This is a bio-stimulatory effect and applies to visible and far-red laser induction of cell cultures. The result may well be mitosis and enhanced cell proliferation if the dose is correct. Lasers are used to rejuvenate the face by stimulating dermal fibroblasts.
- Fibroblasts and myoblasts can be stimulated by the use of light (photo stimulation, photosensitizer, photo-bioactivation, biomodulation, photo-biomodulation). Growth factors can enhance proliferation further. Refer to the chapter on fibroblasts for more information on facial rejuvenation( click on fibroblasts).
- Low level laser therapy contributes to wound healing.
- Laser light mechanism of action: increased PGE2 and COX2nRNA in regulatory pathways, increased proliferation of fibroblasts and therefore ECM and collagen, increased adhesion of cells, increased ascorbic acid uptake and increased hydroxyproline formation.
- Broadband light therapy may well play a role in the treatment of HIV complex.